minijail0(1): sandbox a process
minijail0 [OPTION]… <PROGRAM> [args]…
Runs PROGRAM inside a sandbox.
Run using the alternate syscall table named table. Only available on kernels and architectures that support the PR_ALT_SYSCALL option of prctl(2).
Bind-mount src into the chroot directory at dest, optionally writeable. The src path must be an absolute path. If dest is not specified, it will default to src. If the destination does not exist, it will be created as a file or directory based on the src type (including missing parent directories). To create a writable bind-mount set writable to 1. If not specified it will default to 0 (read-only).
Skip setting securebits in mask when restricting capabilities (-c). mask is a hex constant that represents the mask of securebits that will be preserved. See capabilities(7) for the complete list. By default, SECURE_NOROOT, SECURE_NO_SETUID_FIXUP, and SECURE_KEEP_CAPS (together with their respective locks) are set. SECBIT_NO_CAP_AMBIENT_RAISE (and its respective lock) is never set because the permitted and inheritable capability sets have already been set through -c.
Restrict capabilities to caps, which is either a hex constant or a string that will be passed to cap_from_text(3) (only the effective capability mask will be considered). The value will be used as the permitted, effective, and inheritable sets. When used in conjunction with -u and -g, this allows a program to have access to only certain parts of root’s default privileges while running as another user and group ID altogether. Note that these capabilities are not inherited by subprocesses of the process given capabilities unless those subprocesses have POSIX file capabilities or the --ambient flag is also passed. See capabilities(7).
Change root (using chroot(2)) to dir.
Create a new /dev mount with a minimal set of nodes. Implies -v. Additional nodes can be bound with the -b or -k options. The initial set of nodes are: full null tty urandom zero. Symlinks are also created for: fd ptmx stderr stdin stdout.
Enter a new network namespace, or if file is specified, enter an existing network namespace specified by file which is typically of the form /proc/<pid>/ns/net.
Write the pid of the jailed process to file.
Change groups to group, which may be either a group name or a numeric group ID.
Inherit all the supplementary groups of the user specified with -u. It is an error to use this option without having specified a user name to -u.
Print a help message.
Print a help message detailing supported system call names for seccomp_filter. (Other direct numbers may be specified if minijail0 is not in sync with the host kernel or something like 32/64-bit compatibility issues exist.)
Exit immediately after fork(2). The jailed process will keep running in the background.
Normally minijail will fork+exec the specified program so that it can set up the right security settings in the new child process. The initial minijail process will stay resident and wait for the program to exit so the script that ran minijail will correctly block (e.g. standalone scripts). Specifying -i makes that initial process exit immediately and free up the resources.
This option is recommended for daemons and init services when you want to background the long running program.
Run program as init (pid 1) inside a new pid namespace (implies -p).
Most programs don’t expect to run as an init which is why minijail will do it for you by default. Basically, the program needs to reap any processes it forks to avoid leaving zombies behind. Signal handling needs care since the kernel will mask all signals that don’t have handlers registered (all default handlers are ignored and cannot be changed).
This means a minijail process (acting as init) will remain resident by default. While using -I is recommended when possible, strict review is required to make sure the program continues to work as expected.
-i and -I may be safely used together. The -i option controls the first minijail process outside of the pid namespace while the -I option controls the minijail process inside of the pid namespace.
- -k <src>,<dest>,<type>[,<flags>[,<data>]]
Mount src, a type filesystem, at dest. If a chroot or pivot root is active, dest will automatically be placed below that path.
The flags field is optional and may be a mix of MS_XXX or hex constants separated by | characters. See mount(2) for details. MS_NODEV|MS_NOSUID|MS_NOEXEC is the default value (a writable mount with nodev/nosuid/noexec bits set), and it is strongly recommended that all mounts have these three bits set whenever possible. If you need to disable all three, then specify something like MS_SILENT.
The data field is optional and is a comma delimited string (see mount(2) for details). It is passed directly to the kernel, so all fields here are filesystem specific. For tmpfs, if no data is specified, we will default to mode=0755,size=10M. If you want other settings, you will need to specify them explicitly yourself.
If the mount is not a pseudo filesystem (e.g. proc or sysfs), src path must be an absolute path (e.g. /dev/sda1 and not sda1).
If the destination does not exist, it will be created as a directory (including missing parent directories).
Don’t mark all existing mounts as MS_PRIVATE. This option is dangerous as it negates most of the functionality of -v. You very likely don’t need this.
You may specify a mount propagation mode in which case, that will be used instead of the default MS_PRIVATE. See the mount(2) man page and the kernel docs Documentation/filesystems/sharedsubtree.txt for more technical details, but a brief guide:
· slave Changes in the parent mount namespace will propagate in, but changes in this mount namespace will not propagate back out. This is usually what people want to use.
· private No changes in either mount namespace will propagate. This is the default behavior if you don’t specify -K.
· shared Changes in the parent and this mount namespace will freely propagate back and forth. This is not recommended.
· unbindable Mark all mounts as unbindable.
Run inside a new IPC namespace. This option makes the program’s System V IPC namespace independent.
Report blocked syscalls when using a seccomp filter. On kernels with support for SECCOMP_RET_LOG, every blocked syscall will be reported through the audit subsystem (see seccomp(2) for more details on SECCOMP_RET_LOG availability.) On all other kernels, the first failing syscall will be logged to syslog. This latter case will also force certain syscalls to be allowed in order to write to syslog. Note: this option is disabled and ignored for release builds.
\<loweruid\> \<count\>\[,\<uid\> \<loweruid\> \<count\>\]\]** Set the uid mapping of a user namespace (implies **\-pU**). Same arguments as [**newuidmap**(1)](http://man7.org/linux/man-pages/man1/newuidmap.1.html). Multiple mappings should be separated by ','. With no mapping, map the current uid to root inside the user namespace.
\<loweruid\> \<count\>\[,\<uid\> \<loweruid\> \<count\>\]\]** Set the gid mapping of a user namespace (implies **\-pU**). Same arguments as [**newgidmap**(1)](http://man7.org/linux/man-pages/man1/newgidmap.1.html). Multiple mappings should be separated by ','. With no mapping, map the current gid to root inside the user namespace.
Set the process’s no_new_privs bit. See prctl(2) and the kernel source file Documentation/prctl/no_new_privs.txt for more info.
Run inside a new cgroup namespace. This option runs the program with a cgroup view showing the program’s cgroup as the root. This is only available on v4.6+ of the Linux kernel.
Run inside a new PID namespace. This option will make it impossible for the program to see or affect processes that are not its descendants. This implies -v and -r, since otherwise the process can see outside its namespace by inspecting /proc.
If the program exits, all of its children will be killed immediately by the kernel. If you need to daemonize or background things, use the -i option.
See pid_namespaces(7) for more info.
Set dir as the root fs using pivot_root. Implies -v, not compatible with -C.
Remount /proc readonly. This implies -v. Remounting /proc readonly means that even if the process has write access to a system config knob in /proc (e.g., in /sys/kernel), it cannot change the value.
Set an rlimit value, see getrlimit(2) for more details.
rlim_type may be specified using symbolic constants like RLIMIT_AS.
rlim_cur and rlim_max are specified either with a number (decimal or hex starting with 0x), or with the string unlimited (which will translate to RLIM_INFINITY).
Enable seccomp(2) in mode 1, which restricts the child process to a very small set of system calls. You most likely do not want to use this with the seccomp filter mode (-S) as they are completely different (even though they have similar names).
-S <arch-specific seccomp_filter policy file>
Enable seccomp(2) in mode 13 which restricts the child process to a set of system calls defined in the policy file. Note that system call names may be different based on the runtime environment; see minijail0(5) for more details.
Mounts a tmpfs filesystem on /tmp. /tmp must exist already (e.g. in the chroot). The filesystem has a default size of “64M”, overridden with an optional argument. It has standard /tmp permissions (1777), and is mounted nodev/noexec/nosuid. Implies -v.
Assume binary’s ELF linkage type is type, which must be either ‘static’ or ‘dynamic’. Either setting will prevent minijail0 from manually parsing the ELF header to determine the type. Type ‘static’ can be used to avoid preload hooking, and will force minijail0 to instead set everything up before the program is executed. Type ‘dynamic’ will force minijail0 to preload libminijailpreload.so to setup hooks, but will fail on actually statically-linked binaries.
Change users to user, which may be either a user name or a numeric user ID.
Enter a new user namespace (implies -p).
Run inside a new VFS namespace. This option makes the program’s mountpoints independent of the rest of the system’s.
Enter the VFS namespace specified by file.
Create and join a new anonymous session keyring. See keyrings(7) for more details.
Keep the current user’s supplementary groups.
Synchronize seccomp filters across thread group.
Don’t forward any signals to the jailed process. For example, when not using -i, sending SIGINT (e.g., CTRL-C on the terminal), will kill the minijail0 process, not the jailed process.
Raise ambient capabilities to match the mask specified by -c. Since ambient capabilities are preserved across execve(2), this allows for process trees to have a restricted set of capabilities, even if they are capability-dumb binaries. See capabilities(7).
Create a new UTS/hostname namespace, and optionally set the hostname in the new namespace to hostname.
** Use *system* as the logging system. *system* must be one of **auto** (the default), **syslog**, or **stderr**.
auto will use stderr if connected to a tty (e.g. run directly by a user), otherwise it will use syslog.
Choose from one of the available sandboxing profiles, which are simple way to get a standardized environment. See the SANDBOXING PROFILES section below for the full list of supported values for profile.
--preload-library <file path>
Allows overriding the default path of /lib/libminijailpreload.so. This is only really useful for testing. --seccomp-bpf-binary <arch-specific BPF binary> This is similar to -S, but instead of using a policy file, --secomp-bpf-binary expects a arch-and-kernel-version-specific pre-compiled BPF binary (such as the ones produced by parse_seccomp_policy). Note that the filter might be different based on the runtime environment; see minijail0(5) for more details.
The following sandboxing profiles are supported:
Set up a minimalistic mount namespace. Equivalent to -v -P /var/empty -b / -b /proc -b /dev/log -t -r –mount-dev.
This program is broken up into two parts: minijail0 (the frontend) and a helper library called libminijailpreload. Some jailings can only be achieved from the process to which they will actually apply:
· capability use (without using ambient capabilities): non-ambient capabilities are not inherited across execve(2) unless the file being executed has POSIX file capabilities. Ambient capabilities (the --ambient flag) fix capability inheritance across execve(2) to avoid the need for file capabilities.
· seccomp: a meaningful seccomp filter policy should disallow execve(2), to prevent a compromised process from executing a different binary. However, this would prevent the seccomp policy from being applied before execve(2).
To this end, libminijailpreload is forcibly loaded into all dynamically-linked target programs by default; we pass the specific restrictions in an environment variable which the preloaded library looks for. The forcibly-loaded library then applies the restrictions to the newly-loaded program.
This behavior can be disabled by the use of the -T static flag. There are other cases in which the use of this flag might be useful:
· When program is linked against a different version of libc.so than libminijailpreload.so.
· When execve(2) has side-effects that interact badly with the jailing process. If the system uses SELinux, execve(2) can cause an automatic domain transition, which would then require that the target domain allows the operations to jail program.
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Copyright © 2011 The Chromium OS Authors License BSD-like.