The type state pattern

fn main() -> ! {
    let p = Peripherals::take().unwrap();
    let gpio0 = p0::Parts::new(p.P0);

    let pin: P0_01<Disconnected> = gpio0.p0_01;

    // let gpio0_01_again = gpio0.p0_01; // Error, moved.
    let mut pin_input: P0_01<Input<Floating>> = pin.into_floating_input();
    if pin_input.is_high().unwrap() {
        // ...
    let mut pin_output: P0_01<Output<OpenDrain>> = pin_input
        .into_open_drain_output(OpenDrainConfig::Disconnect0Standard1, Level::Low);
    // pin_input.is_high(); // Error, moved.

    let _pin2: P0_02<Output<OpenDrain>> = gpio0
        .into_open_drain_output(OpenDrainConfig::Disconnect0Standard1, Level::Low);
    let _pin3: P0_03<Output<PushPull>> =

    loop {}
  • Pins don’t implement Copy or Clone, so only one instance of each can exist. Once a pin is moved out of the port struct nobody else can take it.
  • Changing the configuration of a pin consumes the old pin instance, so you can’t keep use the old instance afterwards.
  • The type of a value indicates the state that it is in: e.g. in this case, the configuration state of a GPIO pin. This encodes the state machine into the type system, and ensures that you don’t try to use a pin in a certain way without properly configuring it first. Illegal state transitions are caught at compile time.
  • You can call is_high on an input pin and set_high on an output pin, but not vice-versa.
  • Many HAL crates follow this pattern.